This morning, as we return to our ongoing study in the books of Samuel, we are, in one sense, coming to the end of the book. Please soften our hearts to receive from You. But his motive was misunderstood. In II Samuel 20, we find two distinct, but related sections. Sermons. Lord Father we thank You for this time we’ve had together studying Your Word and we ask that You would make it fertile in our lives to do what You desire. Three times, this reading emphasizes the singing and dancing with which the Ark of the Lord was brought to the tent David had erected on Mount Zion. May 4, 2014 2 Samuel 20:21 Home | M. Henry Commentary | Play! And there happened to be there a rebel, whose name was Sheba the son of Bichri, a Benjamite. Amasa, who David named to replace Joab (because of Joab’s disobedience when he killed Absalom) tarried too long in chasing down Sheba, who argued that David should no longer be King. Like Sheba, Joab “seized the day”, didn't he? No, I think the clearest demonstration of David's faith in the books of Samuel was how, for so many years, he waited, and waited, and waited for God to give him the throne of Israel. The first is in verse 3, and the second is in verse 23-26. II. 2. So it's pretty clear which character is the main focus in this literary 'frame'. Recorded Sermons. So, it was the professional soldiers and mercenaries that were with Abishai, along with Joab’s men. 14 Sheba passed through all the tribes of Israel to Abel Beth Maakah and through the entire region of the Bikrites,  who gathered together and followed him. We baptize our selfishness and pride, and then justify our words and behavior. Then cried a wise woman — A woman of great understanding, who also could speak well. More than just being a sad note about the fate of these mistreated concubines, verse 3 points us back, not only to Absalom's actions in chapter 16, but also back to God's announcement in chapter 12. 2 Samuel 20 Bible / Bible Versions / KJV / 2 Samuel / 2 Samuel 20; Previous Book Previous Chapter Read the Full ... Scripture Formatting. The Bible does not tell us what prompted Sheba’s rebellion, because it did not matter. The Paperback Bible. 2 Samuel 20 (All) And they told Shimei, saying, “Look, your slaves, in Gath!” So Shimei arose, saddled his donkey, and went to Achish at Gath to seek his slaves. Handout. Why in the world would David promote Amasa and demote Joab? And there happened to be there. ] Sermon Notes for 2 Samuel 7:18-20 ← Prior Section. Now, you’ll remember from chapter 19 how after Absalom’s defeat, when David was returning to Jerusalem to reclaim his throne, there was a dispute between the 10 tribes and the tribe of Judah. Joab plotted and slashed his way back into his old job. Audio. Seizing can be against or in the name of God's anointed. he shall not diminish her food, her clothing, and her marriage rights. Michael A. Milton. That's what we see with Joab. 15 All the troops with Joab came and besieged Sheba in Abel Beth Maakah. Now I ask one petition of you; do not deny me.”, Then he said, “Please speak to King Solomon, for he will not refuse you, that he may give me Abishag the Shunammite as wife.”, So Bathsheba said, “Very well, I will speak for you to the king.”, Bathsheba therefore went to King Solomon, to speak to him for Adonijah.  For the one who sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption, but the one who sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life.  And Joab said to Amasa, “Is it well with you, my brother?” And Joab took Amasa by the beard with his right hand to kiss him. Take your lord's servants and pursue him, lest he get himself to fortified cities and escape from us.” [skip down to verse 14, the beginning of the other 'bookend']...And Sheba passed through all the tribes of Israel to Abel of Beth-maacah, and all the Bichrites assembled and followed him in. This time it seems to be Joab acting alone … though perhaps Abishai is enabling his brother. And so in II Samuel 20, I believe the author is highlighting this same contrast: seize or receive? Many such there were in Israel, as appears by the woman of Tekoah, by Abigail, and the mother of Lemuel. In II Samuel 20, we find two distinct, but related sections. Looking For Fresh Sermon Inspiration? I think this is where verse 3 comes into play. with the army ready for operations filled David with alarm, lest he also had turned traitor, and Sheba was given time to make headway in the north by capturing. Study 2 Samuel 20 with ... J. Vernon McGee . Then he went to his own house, and at his request they set food before him, and he ate. He did not seize the throne from Saul. And the king rose up to meet her and bowed down to her, and sat down on his throne and had a throne set for the king’s mother; so she sat at his right hand. We know that David did a great job of defending the nation against it’s external enemies, such as the Philistines. Persuasion: Second Samuel 20.1–2 – The Thinking of a Rebel Sheba, of the tribe of Benjamin, began a rebellion by disavowing David. Eli is aged, both … Continue reading "Commentary on 1 Samuel 3:1-10 [11-20]" And he blew the trumpet and said, “We have no portion in David, and we have no inheritance in the son of Jesse; every man to his tents, O Israel!”  So all the men of Israel withdrew from David and followed Sheba the son of Bichri. 2-samuel 20:1 And there happened to be there a man of Belial, whose name was Sheba, the son of Bichri, a Benjamite: and he blew a trumpet, and said, We have no part in David, neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: every man to his tents, O Israel. After a narrative on the Hannah’s unlikely pregnancy (1 Samuel 1) and her accompanying prayer (1 Samuel 2), 1 Samuel 3 describes the call narrative for the Israelite leader. Then she said, “I desire one small petition of you; do not refuse me.”, And the king said to her, “Ask it, my mother, for I will not refuse you.”, So she said, “Let Abishag the Shunammite be given to Adonijah your brother as wife.”, And King Solomon answered and said to his mother, “Now why do you ask Abishag the Shunammite for Adonijah? 2 Samuel 19 2 Samuel 20 2 Samuel 21. Is that an expression that glorifies God? Amasa had been commander of Absalom’s army, so perhaps David was afraid he had turned traitor and joined up with Sheba. Sermon Notes for 1 Kings 3:11-14 Next Section → Sermon Notes for 1 Samuel 1:15 ← Prior Book. Then the king sent and called for Shimei, and said to him, “Did I not make you swear by the, , and warn you, saying, ‘Know for certain that on the day you go out and travel anywhere, you shall surely die’? Listen! And … Amasa did not show up within the 3 days he was given. Then she describes the city as not only the home of people but as a mother in Israel. You may recall that in verses 41-43 of chapter 19, we saw the men of Judah and the men of the other 11 tribes of Israel arguing about bringing King David back to Jerusalem after Absalom's revolt was crushed. 2 Samuel 20:6 Or and do us serious injury; 2 Samuel 20:14 See Septuagint and Vulgate; Hebrew Berites. It works everywhere you sign in, even with the mobile app! Now, the gruesome violence that Joab's uses here should come as no surprise. 20 And there happened to be there a man of Belial, whose name was Sheba, the son of Bichri, a Benjamite: and he blew a trumpet, and said, We have no part in David, neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: every man to his tents, O Israel. 2 Samuel 20:24 Some Septuagint manuscripts (see also 1 Kings 4:6 and 5:14); Hebrew Adoram; 2 Samuel 20:26 Hebrew; some Septuagint manuscripts and Syriac (see also 23:38) Ithrite; Cross references . I think we could say seizing doesn't always look like sin. It may have been an altar or a high place or it may simply have been an unusual rock formation in that area. It may have been that they were afraid that out of revenge Sheba would implicate them in his rebellion. It is interesting in that Amasa is described as coming before his army … but it’s Joab that seems to be leading the army coming up from Jerusalem. Isn’t that what sin is, exclaiming “We have not portion in God”? David’s reign saw far too little justice. Do you see that? We know nothing about this man other than what we learn in verse 1: Sheba was a “worthless man”, literally in Hebrew, “a son of Belial”, a title used fifteen time in the Old Testament of people who are morally and spiritually corrupt. “Moreover you know also what Joab the son of Zeruiah did to me, what he did to the two commanders of the armies of Israel, to Abner the son of Ner and Amasa the son of Jether, whom he killed. However, the kingdom has been turned over, and has become my brother’s; for it was his from the, . So, why include these? As the type of the Messiah who is yet to come to fully establish God’s Kingdom on earth, it is surprising to witness the many failures in the life of this great OT leader who has been characterized as “the man after God’s own heart.” Yet God demonstrates His Power and His Providence in mercifully restoring David, in sustaining and even strengthening his United Kingdom over the twelve tribes, and in preparing the way for that future Messia… It works everywhere you sign in, even with the mobile app! And it does glorify God when we make the most of the present by obeying His word and living boldly in faith. So Sheba may have felt justified in his rebellious actions. But now that he was dead, they were concerned about what David would do. The Bible is very practical and plain, sometimes disturbingly so. David, who was a man after God's heart, sinned on many occasions. 2 Samuel 22 (All) The story is familiar to many of us. 2 Samuel 20-22 The Sword Continues to Devour - Duration: 56:06. Browse Sermons on 2 Samuel 2. 2 Samuel 1:1-27 . Now, that move was surprising in two ways: 1) Joab was the victorious general who had crushed Absalom's rebellion, and 2) Amasa was Absalom's general. (Dale Ralph Davis). 2 Samuel 18-20 New International Version (NIV). But upon David and his descendants, upon his house and his throne, there shall be peace forever from the. forty years; seven years he reigned in Hebron, and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years. The king told the troops, “I myself will surely march out with you.” But we know that Sheba was from the tribe of Benjamin. Abishai should have been in this place, but it may be that Joab was already exerting himself over Abishai. 2 Samuel 20 And there happened to be there a man of Belial, whose name was Sheba, the son of Bichri, a Benjamite: and he blew a trumpet, and said, We have no part in David, neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: every man to his tents, O Israel. Or maybe it was in the face of another battle, or when he lived among the Philistines? Then the king sent and called for Shimei, and said to him, “Build yourself a house in Jerusalem and dwell there, and do not go out from there anywhere. David maintained his obligation to them, but they would never have children by him. Sheba . And so Sheba proclaimed the order … “Every man back to his tents, O Israel.”, So, suddenly Sheba is giving orders … he either hoped to become a king himself, or some say that he hoped for there to be no king at all … that each man should rule, “in his own tent.”. David’s misbehavior and "do-nothing" attitude led to a vacuum that made it questionable for some people whether he had a right to return to the throne. Sermon Notes for 2 Samuel 17:23 ← Prior Section. Some Jewish commentaries suggest that David would have wanted to appoint Benaiah, as Solomon later did. We do know, according to verse 2, that the men of Israel followed Sheba's lead. Therefore do according to your wisdom, and do not let his gray hair go down to the grave in peace. This was a fortified city that seemed to provide safety from David’s armies. Heavenly Father, we thank You for everyone here this evening. Look with me at verses 7 through 13. Note: References preceded by dates are sermons . Keyword: Filter: Page 1 | Found: 63 sermons: Show only exact verse | SORT. The author of 1 and 2 Samuel has a similar verse (2 Samuel 6:16), but he then follows up by describing the confrontation between David and Michal which followed, and telling us the outcome (verses 20-23). And anyone who came by, seeing him, stopped. The Paperback Bible presents the Bible by the Book and is designed to be portable, readable, and truly personal with ample margins for notations. (1-2) Sheba’s rebellion. This was meant to send a message out to all Israel that Absalom was now in control of all that his father once had. Thus the war comes to a satisfactory end with a minimum of casualties, thanks to the intervention of a ‘wise woman’, who drew out of the military leader the answer she wanted, and saved her city. Sign In. Given Joab’s ease toward treachery, it would have been very possible that he rise up against David if David did not keep him close. 2 Samuel. Notice that Joab had demanded that Sheba be delivered to him alive. 2 Samuel 20 – The Rebellion of Sheba A. David returns to Jerusalem and to an insurrection. Keyword: Filter: Page 1 | Found: 63 sermons: Show only exact verse | SORT. found in it shall be placed under tribute to you, and serve you. It describes a wicked person with no regard for what God has proclaimed. Prayer Meetings; Coffee Morning; Monday Club; Mothers & Toddlers; Youth At Bethel. Instead, as He prayed in Gethsemane, Jesus lived to do God’s will, not His own. Well, listen to how one commentator expresses this idea... Could it be that II Samuel 20 depicts a double rebellion? All Videos PDFs. Do you know that He wants to change you? SermonAudio.com - 2 Samuel 20 Sermons. What I want you to see at this point is that 'hamburger patty' is very similar to the buns. He passed throughout Israel to incite the people against David.  And one of Joab's young men took his stand by Amasa and said, “Whoever favors Joab, and whoever is for David, let him follow Joab.”  And Amasa lay wallowing in his blood in the highway. Chapter 10 recounts how David acted with good intentions.  I am one of those who are peaceable and faithful in Israel. Study 2 Samuel 19 with ... J. Vernon McGee . While that wasn’t the case, it was the case that because of this delay, Sheba was given time to make headway in the north. Joab contentedly sacrificed the interest both of the king and the kingdom to his personal revenge. Now Joab was wearing a soldier's garment, and over it was a belt with a sword in its sheath fastened on his thigh, and as he went forward it fell out. Both phrases can mean “to make the most of a present opportunity”; “to not let something pass you by”. Even in that incident, David takes advantage of Joab's violent ruthlessness in order to get rid of Bathsheba's husband and cover up his sin. which He spoke concerning the house of Eli at Shiloh. And by the time Amasa may have realized it, it was too late. We don't quite know what his endgame was. Deuteronomy 20:10-11; 2 Samuel 8:2; 2 Samuel 8:6; 2 Samuel 8:14).It consisted of prisoners of war who worked on such public construction projects as highways, temples, and palaces. No, not Amasa the turncoat; not Amasa the incompetent. He has been known as “the son of Jesse”, 1 Sam. Both these episodes shed light on the diplomatic role played by women during this period. Morning; Evening. Return to the Main Player. Browse Sermons on 2 Samuel 2. Now think about that phrase for a moment. So Joab fled to the tabernacle of the, , and took hold of the horns of the altar. Most cities back then had 2 walls … one outer wall and one inner wall. As all places are full of such beautefeaus and Belialists: so is hell too. But it also refers to a city that’s highly regarded. We can receive, because He did not seize the day in sin. Roughly translated it means “pluck the day” or “enjoy the day”, but we're more familiar with the translation, “seize the day”. And Solomon was told that Shimei had gone from Jerusalem to Gath and had come back. But Amasa, the one who was pierced. The Paperback Bible presents the Bible by the Book and is designed to be portable, readable, and truly personal with ample margins for notations. In fact, this should properly be translated as a phrase in parentheses, as the Lexham English Bible does. And it shall be that if they accept your offer of peace, and open to you, then all the people. Once again, David would have to give in to Joab’s power tactics. On the cross, Jesus suffered because of our seizing. Instead, like he did in his earlier days, he is dealing with matters in a more head on manner. Joab murdered Absalom and David’s drastic action is to reassign Joab, basically a do-nothing approach.  But Amasa did not observe the sword that was in Joab's hand. The Rebellion of Sheba. Back in chapter 3, Joab murdered Abner, the man that David had replaced him in office with Amasa.  And let us not grow weary of doing good, for in due season we will reap, if we do not give up. 2 Samuel 12:20 Then David got up from the ground, washed and anointed himself, changed his clothes, and went into the house of the LORD and worshiped. I think we could say that 1) David was chastising Joab for disobeying a direct order not to hurt Absalom (18:5), and 2) David may have felt it was necessary to promote Amasa as a means of reuniting a divided nation. Why didn’t he ask the inhabitants to heed his request to turn over Sheba rather than just attack? To understand these sections, we need to remember what happened at the end of chapter 19. We can see from his language here that David was very alarmed by these events. Now, the text doesn’t say but it sure seems as if Joab must have known who she was to halt the attack for a conversation with her. 16:18; “David the King”, 1 Chron. MINISTRY OF SERMONAUDIO. So the main storyline of Samuel ends by touching on both of those elements: not only Absalom's sin with the ten concubines, but also the fact that David's kingdom is still characterized by division and violence God's word will stand. God intends to develop our character, and to do that adversity is essential. What about us? He recognized the signs and tried to stop her; but when his daughter was a sophomore, filled with beautiful potential, an overdose took her life. And I will take your wives before your eyes and give them to your neighbor, and he shall lie with your wives in the sight of this sun.” (II Samuel 12:10-11). Joab returned home to Jerusalem as the self-appointed commander of the whole army. Don't have an account? David was a man of faith. Sermons by Topic View ... Sermon: How to Forgive Your Enemies-and Your Friends: 5 Scriptural Steps to Total Forgiveness What Every Father Needs to Hear. Is that a phrase fitting for followers of Christ? Find Top Church Sermons, Illustrations, and Preaching Slides on 2 Samuel 2. They built a siege ramp up to the city, and it stood against the outer fortifications. Search Results For: 2 Samuel. But after that, Saul began an downward spiral and starting a spiritual regression. In one sense, the New Testament has a very similar phrase: “redeem the time”, found in Ephesians 5 and Colossians 4. And King Solomon was told, “Joab has fled to the tabernacle of the, by the altar.” Then Solomon sent Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, saying, “Go, strike him down.” So Benaiah went to the tabernacle of the, , and said to him, “Thus says the king, ‘Come out!’ ”, And he said, “No, but I will die here.” And Benaiah brought back word to the king, saying, “Thus said Joab, and thus he answered me.”, Then the king said to him, “Do as he has said, and strike him down and bury him, that you may take away from me and from the house of my father the innocent blood which Joab shed. Absalom took the throne from David and rather than fight, David ran. In addition, David was the son of Jessie, not a member of Saul’s household and so what claim did David have on their allegiance? The Paperback Bible. Now therefore, lives, who has confirmed me and set me on the throne of David my father, and who has established a house for me, as He promised, Adonijah shall be put to death today!”. This was Amasa’s first assignment as commander of the army, having taken the place of Joab. Register! Then Joab and Abishai his brother pursued Sheba the son of Bichri. 2 Samuel 20 (All) (He had passed through all the tribes of Israel to Abel and Beth Maacah; now all of the Berites had been treated badly, so they also followed after him.). But Joab’s seemingly clumsy act of dropping his sword disarmed any suspicion Amasa, Joab’s first cousin, may have had. And his plan worked. 393 views. Sermon: Yet Another Head Wound (2 Samuel 20:1-26) - Duration: 39:49. Someone in lack so that you can enjoy the gain. 1 Samuel 18-20 – The Commitment of Friendship. 2 David sent out his troops, a third under the command of Joab, a third under Joab’s brother Abishai son of Zeruiah, and a third under Ittai the Gittite. That means chapter 20 is the end of the main storyline. David had given the command to Abishai; but Joab had taken back his old position and wouldn’t let it go (v. 23). Feelings smashed so that you can feel smug. Whether or not he planned to establish himself as king or some other is not certain, but he was in rebellion. Everyone followed Sheba, except the men of Judah. Sermon Notes for 1 Kings 3:11-14 Next Book → ← Back to Chuck Smith's Bio & Resources ← Back to all Commentaries. The Rebellion of Sheba. Don't have an account? Back in chapter 3 David had lamented that he lacked the strength to deal with Joab as he deserved.  And David came to his house at Jerusalem. Notes. And how could we forget the image of Amasa, verse 12, “wallowing in his blood in the highway”. But I also think we can see Jesus in the person of Amasa. It might have been that David recognized how he had violated God’s instructions in. David: A Man After God’s Own Heart – Sermon #22 . And to Abiathar the priest the king said, “Go to Anathoth, to your own fields, for you, deserving of death; but I will not put you to death at this time, because you carried the ark of the Lord, before my father David, and because you were afflicted every time my father was afflicted.” So Solomon removed Abiathar from being priest to the. Prepare your messages on God's Word in 2 Samuel with sermon outlines or an entire sermon series. By: William Bagley. A WISE WOMAN SAVES THE CITY BY SHEBA'S HEAD. And when the man saw that all the people stopped, he carried Amasa out of the highway into the field and threw a garment over him. 2 Samuel 20 Home | M. Henry Commentary | Play! When we SEIZE that which dishonors God. But he came down to meet me at the Jordan, and I swore to him by the, , saying, ‘I will not put you to death with the sword.’ Now therefore, do not hold him guiltless, for you, a wise man and know what you ought to do to him; but bring his gray hair down to the grave with blood.”, So David rested with his fathers, and was buried in the City of David. Perhaps they were stopped in order to weigh up what had happened and how to proceed. Now, there are a couple sections in the midst of this 'hamburger bun', sections that are not directly connected to the story of Sheba's revolt. Let’s pray and see where this chapter takes us. So, Joab was taken back by what this lady said and he denied that he had any intention to destroy the city and the people. “As at the first time, I stayed in the mountain forty days and forty nights; the, journey before the people, that they may go in and possess the land which I swore to their fathers to give them.’. Our sermon ideas on 2 Samuel will help you preach a powerful message on God's unconditional promise to David. Ask for him the kingdom also—for he, my older brother—for him, and for Abiathar the priest, and for Joab the son of Zeruiah.” Then King Solomon swore by the. He had strongly implied that there was no justice to be found in David’s kingdom. SA Radio 2 SAMUEL 11. So he blew the trumpet, and they dispersed from the city, every man to his home. Departure from and Adherence to Christ: G. Wood : 2 Samuel 20:1, 2: The Insurrection of Sheba: B. Dale : 2 Samuel 20:1-3 : Disunion the Devil's Policy: Spurgeon, Charles Haddon: 2 Samuel 20:1-5: Rebellion of Sheba: C. Ness. Speaker: Bryce Morgan Series: Crying for a King (Samuel), Topic: Had he drawn his sword, Amasa would have seen what was happening. 2 Samuel 20:3-26 3 Now David came to his house at Jerusalem. He was “seizing the day”, wasn't he? The Insurrection Of Sheba . Do you grab, when God says give? Return to the Main Player. Now remember that the argument from chapter 19 was that because David was of Judah, the other tribes had a lesser share in him. What Goes Around Comes Around. Joab descrives Sheba as being from the mountains of Ephraim. We have to see that when we are tempted to seize. But Joab’s man on duty made sure that all the people got the message: Joab was in control of the army, though without any charter from the king. In light of that, we might ask, “What was the clearest demonstration of David's faith?” Was it when he fought Goliath? After the death of Absalom, Sheba incited Israel to rebel against David. Verse 3 describes how David took care of, but sequestered the ten concubines that Absalom had raped in chapter 16. All Videos PDFs. Notes. Share. Now Joab was dressed in battle armor; on it was a belt with a sword fastened in its sheath at his hips; and as he was going forward, it fell out. Before we do that, let me mention why the main storyline of Samuel ends this way, that is, why was chapter 20 included in this book? Amasa was on his way to report to David and get his orders … but we’ll see more about this in verse 8. We might say to ourselves, “Well, I'm not a sinner”, and yet we live like a Pharisee. Sermon Notes for 2 Samuel 7:18-22 Next Section → Sermon Notes for 1 Samuel 1:15 ← Prior Book. Sheba was leading the Israelites to a vote of "no-confidence," and David knew it before he came to Jerusalem. 2 Samuel 20:1-9.SHEBA MAKES A PARTY IN ISRAEL. ◄ 2 Samuel 20:16 ► Then cried a wise woman out of the city, Hear, hear; say, I pray you, to Joab, Come near here, that I may speak with you. Outlines. on his feet. What about you? And you said to me, ‘The word I have heard, good.’ Why then have you not kept the oath of the, and the commandment that I gave you?” The king said moreover to Shimei, “You know, as your heart acknowledges, all the wickedness that you did to my father David; therefore the, will return your wickedness on your own head. 7:21). Not only is there a contrast here in terms of the larger book, but we also find a contrast in terms of the successfulness of seizing. Another humiliated so you can look superior. But do we see the damage we cause when we seize instead of receive. We could say that Sheba cried “carpe diem” in verse 1. And we see in verse 9 that Joab himself was present … perhaps awaiting his opportunity to make a move to reclaim his position … or more. It would be easy for someone to read this chapter and ask, “Where is God?” And we know part of the answer to that in light of what we read in chapter 12 about God’s judgment against David. Golden Years (17 of 54) by Stan Coffey. When we take, when we grasp, when we seize in sin, we always feel like Joab, that is, we always feel like we WILL get what we want, consequence-free. Sermon: When You Have Sinned - 2 Samuel 12, Psalm 51. by Lloyd Stilley on Wednesday, January 01, 2014 at 7:00 AM . To understand these sections, we need to remember what happened at the end of chapter 19. Sheba and those who followed him ended up in the very north of Israel’s territory. A ramp could be built next to a wall to give a way over … that’s how the Romans attacked the fortress of Masada.  Now Joab was in command of all the army of Israel; and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was in command of the Cherethites and the Pelethites;  and Adoram was in charge of the forced labor; and Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was the recorder;  and Sheva was secretary; and Zadok and Abiathar were priests;  and Ira the Jairite was also David's priest.